Essay on Global Warming and Climate Change
Here we have written some essays over the climate change and its connection to the global warming. All the written essays are very simple and easy in order to help students. Our written essays proves some questions like background of issue, effect of climate change over people’s lives and relation of climate change to global warming.
Global Warming and Climate Change Essay 1 (100 words)
The whole climate of the world is changing regularly because of the increasing global warming by the natural means and human activities. All the changes have an enormous impact on the people’s lives and ecosystems. The average global temperature has been raised by 1 degree in the last 30 years. It has been reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that average global temperature can be raised by 2 to 8.6 degrees F by 2100. The rate in increasing global temperature is because of the increasing emissions of heat-trapping gases called green house gases in the atmosphere.
Global Warming and Climate Change Essay 2 (150 words)
Climate change on the earth is partially takes place by the natural cycles of Earth however currently human activities are still major source of climate change. Increasing level of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide brings more heat to the earth as they have ability to absorb and emit heat in the atmosphere and thus keep earth warm. Some of the dangerous human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, technological inventions, etc are adding more toxic greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. All the greenhouse gases make temperature of earth to increase at higher rate which is not in the favour of life of human beings, animal and plants.
A huge level of climate change disturbs the balance of the global ecosystem as well as increases health risks and more heat-related injuries and deaths. Rising sea levels is a also an example of climate change due to the global warming which in turn causes flood, drought, promotes danger of malaria and other parasites.
Global Warming and Climate Change Essay 3 (200 words)
There are many reasons of climate change including natural cycles of earth however the major contributors of the climate change is global warming. Many human activities and technological development in the world are forcing the greenhouse gases to increase and getting collected to the atmosphere which in turn makes the earth surrounding hot and warm by increasing the temperature of the environment in fast and easy way. Other climate change like rise sea level causes flood which gives rise to malaria and other parasites, increasing coastal erosion, destroying people’s homes in coastal states and so many.
Higher temperature causes problems to the existence of life on this planet even many important species of the plants and animals have been endangered. Longer and severe heat waves of the environment cause more heat-related injuries and higher atmospheric temperature increase rate of water evaporation from smaller water bodies. The ever rising temperature has different effects in different regions like in some areas it raise water levels and in some areas it decrease water levels. Freshwater availability is declining all over the world which is a vital resource of life on this planet. In such a hot environment, it is very hard to grow some crops like corn production may reduced by 10 to 30% if the temperature rises by 3.6 degree Fahrenheit.
Global Warming and Climate Change Essay 4 (250 words)
Climatic changes have become more prominent now because of the global warming which is a global concern. Both are hot issues of the current time and it is the time to analyse causes and prevention methods to prevent the global warming. The release of various green house gases in the atmosphere by many natural means and human activities causes increase in atmospheric temperature because such gases have capability to absorb all the heat of environment from sun, burning coal, etc. Such gases never let sun rays to go back to the atmosphere however trap heat from them.
Increase in atmospheric temperature causes many climate changes like increase in sea level, flood, drought, weather changes, increase summer season, decrease winter season, melting glaciers, increase death rate, increase number of disease, declining ozone layer and other so many climate changes. Fossil fuels burning release more carbon dioxide which is increasing day by day because of deforestation. Plants are the main source to utilize carbon dioxide as a food however we are disturbing the natural cycle by cutting more plants.
Burning coal, oil and natural gases are the main cause of global warming. CO2 gas acts as a blanket which retains environmental heat and warms the earth’s surface. The level of carbon dioxide has become increased to a great level in last century. The earth surface has become successively warmer than ever in the last three decades. Each month is becoming warmer than ever which we can feel very clearly. This increasing heat affecting the lives of human beings, plants and animals even many species have been endangered.
Global Warming and Climate Change Essay 5 (300 words)
There are many reasons behind climate change, some are natural and some are human activities. Climate change is not area or region specific, it s changing all through the world. Climate change occurs when atmospheric temperatures increase a lot which in turn causes many different changes to the earth such as more floods, intense rain, droughts, increase in rate of more frequent and severe heat waves, increase level of oceans, melting glaciers, warming oceans, sea water becoming more acidic, and so many. All these changes may become more frequent in the future decades and hugely challenge the society and environment.
In the few past centuries, human activities have increased the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide including other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Most of the green house gases come from burning fossil fuels which work as blanket around the earth and trap all the energy and heat available in the atmosphere and thus warm the earth surface. This effect is called as the greenhouse effect which triggers climate to change to the huge level and result in dangerous effects to the lives and ecosystems. Such a warmer climate affects the availability of natural water supplies, crop production, agriculture, natural environment, safety, security, etc. Such huge climate changes are unavoidable however cannot be stopped at once.
Global warming has really affected and forced the climate to change over the last century throughout the world. Unusual increase in the earth’s average temperature is because of the high amount of greenhouse gases release due to burning fossil fuels and other human activities. Some of the green house gases having more influence on the climate are CO2, water vapour, dinitrogen-oxide, and methane. According to the research, it has been recorded that almost 30 percent of the heat by incoming sunlight gets reflected back to the space through clouds and ice but because of global warming ice are melting. It means there are no left sources to send heat back to the space and all are getting collected in the earth atmosphere and affecting the climate.
Global Warming and Climate Change Essay 6 (400 words)
A huge level climate change in the current time attracts the people’s attention very easily. Every one of us is feeling very clearly from the short-term changes in the seasonal patterns of temperature, drought, rainfall without season, changing weather patterns, etc to the long-term changes affecting the entire earth. Climate is a long-term weather trend affecting human lives positively or negatively. Climate change is the long term variations in the weather patterns. Climate itself adjusts time to time however going at wrong path since many years because of regular loss of huge ice sheets. Earlier the earth atmosphere was covered with ice sheets which were able to make the earth atmosphere cool by preventing earth from heat and sending back extra heat out of the space from the earth.
Climate has changed from cooler to warmer over the last two million years in the cyclical manner. Sun is the ultimate source of heat energy which fuelling the weather systems after reaching to the earth. Earlier the harsh and extended bitter cold season was called as the little ice age which was due to the huge level variations in the solar activity. It is found that the positive human activities may play major roles in shaping earth’s climate. Such a huge variations in the climate may lead to the danger of the human lives. Earlier it was believed that shifts in the climate pattern from ice age to warmer periods was because of time however later it was imagined that it is due to regular melting of ice sheets of more than a kilometre in thickness. Our climate is getting warm rapidly by the rate of approximately 8°C over the course of 10 years.
A huge industrial revolution in the modern time has largely impacted the global climate system by increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. Heat trapping nature of the green house gases contributes to the global warming. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the increase in earth’s average surface temperature by 20th century has been approximately 0.6°C. It has also been recorded in the northern hemisphere over the last century that there is decrease in snow cover by 10 percent, decrease in spring and summer sea-ice by 10-15 percent, increases in rainfall and its intensity, huge level change in shifts of ice freezes and breaks up in the rivers and lakes.
Global Warming Essay
Causes of Global Warming Essay
Effects of Global Warming Essay
Causes and Effects of Global Warming Essay
Prevention of Global Warming Essay
Consequences of Global Warming Essay
Green House Effect and Global Warming Essay
Global Warming and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Essay
Global Warming Solutions Essay
See also: Global warming and Effects of global warming
Climate change has brought about possibly permanent alterations to Earth's geological, biological and ecological systems. These changes have led to the emergence of a not so large-scale environmental hazards to human health, such as extreme weather,ozone depletion, increased danger of wildland fires,loss of biodiversity, stresses to food-producing systems and the global spread of infectious diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 160,000 deaths, since 1950, are directly attributable to climate change.
To date, a neglected aspect of the climate change debate, much less research has been conducted on the impacts of climate change on health, food supply, economic growth, migration, security, societal change, and public goods, such as drinking water, than on the geophysical changes related to global warming. Human impacts can be both negative and positive. Climatic changes in Siberia, for instance, are expected to improve food production and local economic activity, at least in the short to medium term. Numerous studies suggest, however, that the current and future impacts of climate change on human society are and will continue to be overwhelmingly negative.
The majority of the adverse effects of climate change are experienced by poor and low-income communities around the world, who have much higher levels of vulnerability to environmental determinants of health, wealth and other factors, and much lower levels of capacity available for coping with environmental change. A report on the global human impact of climate change published by the Global Humanitarian Forum in 2009, estimated more than 300,000 deaths and about $125 billion in economic losses each year, and indicating that most climate change induced mortality is due to worsening floods and droughts in developing countries.
Most of the key vulnerabilities to climate change are related to climate phenomena that exceed thresholds for adaptation; such as extreme weather events or abrupt climate change, as well as limited access to resources (financial, technical, human, institutional) to cope. In 2007, the IPCC published a report of key vulnerabilities of industry, settlements, and society to climate change. This assessment included a level of confidence for each key vulnerability:
- Very high confidence: Interactions between climate change and urbanization: this is most notable in developing countries, where urbanization is often focused in vulnerable coastal areas.
- High confidence:
- Interactions between climate change and global economic growth: Stresses due to climate change are not only linked to the impacts of climate change, but also to the impacts of climate change policies. For example, these policies might affect development paths by requiring high cost fuel choices.
- Fixed physical infrastructures that are important in meeting human needs: These include infrastructures that are susceptible to damage from extreme weather events or sea level rise, and infrastructures that are already close to being inadequate.
- Medium confidence: Interactions with governmental and social cultural structures that already face other pressures, e.g., limited economic resources.
Main article: Effects of climate change on human health
Climate change poses a wide range of risks to population health – risks that will increase in future decades, often to critical levels, if global climate change continues on its current trajectory. The three main categories of health risks include: (i) direct-acting effects (e.g. due to heat waves, amplified air pollution, and physical weather disasters), (ii) impacts mediated via climate-related changes in ecological systems and relationships (e.g. crop yields, mosquito ecology, marine productivity), and (iii) the more diffuse (indirect) consequences relating to impoverishment, displacement, resource conflicts (e.g. water), and post-disaster mental health problems.
Climate change thus threatens to slow, halt or reverse international progress towards reducing child under-nutrition, deaths from diarrheal diseases and the spread of other infectious diseases. Climate change acts predominantly by exacerbating the existing, often enormous, health problems, especially in the poorer parts of the world. Current variations in weather conditions already have many adverse impacts on the health of poor people in developing nations, and these too are likely to be 'multiplied' by the added stresses of climate change.
A changing climate thus affects the prerequisites of population health: clean air and water, sufficient food, natural constraints on infectious disease agents, and the adequacy and security of shelter. A warmer and more variable climate leads to higher levels of some air pollutants. It increases the rates and ranges of transmission of infectious diseases through unclean water and contaminated food, and by affecting vector organisms (such as mosquitoes) and intermediate or reservoir host species that harbour the infectious agent (such as cattle,bats and rodents). Changes in temperature, rainfall and seasonality compromise agricultural production in many regions, including some of the least developed countries, thus jeopardising child health and growth and the overall health and functional capacity of adults. As warming proceeds, the severity (and perhaps frequency) of weather-related disasters will increase – and appears to have done so in a number of regions of the world over the past several decades. Therefore, in summary, global warming, together with resultant changes in food and water supplies, can indirectly cause increases in a range of adverse health outcomes, including malnutrition, diarrhea, injuries, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and water-borne and insect-transmitted diseases.
Health equity and climate change have a major impact on human health and quality of life, and are interlinked in a number of ways. The report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health points out that disadvantaged communities are likely to shoulder a disproportionate share of the burden of climate change because of their increased exposure and vulnerability to health threats. Over 90 percent of malaria and diarrhea deaths are borne by children aged 5 years or younger, mostly in developing countries. Other severely affected population groups include women, the elderly and people living in small island developing states and other coastal regions, mega-cities or mountainous areas.
Further information: Effects of global warming on human health § Mental health
A 2011 article in the American Psychologist identified three classes of psychological impacts from global climate change:
- Direct - "Acute or traumatic effects of extreme weather events and a changed environment"
- Indirect - "Threats to emotional well-being based on observation of impacts and concern or uncertainty about future risks"
- Psychosocial – "Chronic social and community effects of heat, drought, migrations, and climate-related conﬂicts, and postdisaster adjustment" A psychological impact is shown through peoples behaviours and how they act towards the actual situation. The topic of climate change is very complex and difficult for people to understand, which effects how they act upon it. It is shown by Ranney and Clark(2016) that by informing people to make them understand the topic of climate science clearly, it promotes the change in behaviour towards mitigation of climate change.
Extreme weather events
Further information: Extreme weather
This trend towards more variability and fluctuation is perhaps more important, in terms of its impact on human health, than that of a gradual and long-term trend towards higher average temperature. Infectious disease often accompanies extreme weather events, such as floods, earthquakes and drought. These local epidemics occur due to loss of infrastructure, such as hospitals and sanitation services, but also because of changes in local ecology and environment.
Further information: Effects of global warming on infectious diseases
Climate change may lead to dramatic increases in prevalence of a variety of infectious diseases. Beginning in the mid-'70s, there has been an “emergence, resurgence and redistribution of infectious diseases”. Reasons for this are likely multicausal, dependent on a variety of social, environmental and climatic factors, however, many argue that the “volatility of infectious disease may be one of the earliest biological expressions of climate instability”. Though many infectious diseases are affected by changes in climate, vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever and leishmaniasis, present the strongest causal relationship. Observation and research detect a shift of pests and pathogens in the distribution away from the equator and towards Earth's poles.
Increased precipitation like rain could increase the number of mosquitos indirectly by expanding larval habitat and food supply. Malaria kills approximately 300,000 children (under age 5) annually, poses an imminent threat through temperature increase . Models suggest, conservatively, that risk of malaria will increase 5-15% by 2100 due to climate change. In Africa alone, according to the MARA Project (Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa), there is a projected increase of 16–28% in person-month exposures to malaria by 2100.
Sociodemographic factors include, but are not limited to: patterns of human migration and travel, effectiveness of public health and medical infrastructure in controlling and treating disease, the extent of anti-malarialdrug resistance and the underlying health status of the population at hand. Environmental factors include: changes in land-use (e.g. deforestation), expansion of agricultural and water development projects (which tend to increase mosquito breeding habitat), and the overall trend towards urbanization (i.e. increased concentration of human hosts). Patz and Olson argue that these changes in landscape can alter local weather more than long term climate change. For example, the deforestation and cultivation of natural swamps in the African highlands has created conditions favourable for the survival of mosquito larvae, and has, in part, led to the increasing incidence of malaria. The effects of these non-climatic factors complicate things and make a direct causal relationship between climate change and malaria difficult to confirm. It is highly unlikely that climate exerts an isolated effect.
Climate change may dramatically impact habitat loss, for example, arid conditions may cause the deforestation of rainforests, as has occurred in the past.
A sustained wet-bulb temperature exceeding 35° is a threshold at which the resilience of human systems is no longer able to adequately cool the skin. A study by NOAA from 2013 concluded that heat stress will reduce labor capacity considerably under current emissions scenarios. There is evidence to show that high temperatures can increase mortality rates among fetuses and children Although the main focus is often on the health impacts and risks of higher temperatures, it should be remembered that they also reduce learning and worker productivity, which can impact a country's economy and development.
See also: Water crisis
The freshwater resources that humans rely on are highly sensitive to variations in weather and climate. In 2007, the IPCC reported with high confidence that climate change has a net negative impact on water resources and freshwater ecosystems in all regions. The IPCC also found with very high confidence that arid and semi-arid areas are particularly exposed to freshwater impacts.
As the climate warms, it changes the nature of global rainfall, evaporation, snow, stream flow and other factors that affect water supply and quality. Specific impacts include:
- Warmer water temperatures affect water quality and accelerate water pollution.
- Sea level rise is projected to increase salt-water intrusion into groundwater in some regions. This reduces the amount of freshwater available for drinking and farming.
- In some areas, shrinking glaciers and snow deposits threaten the water supply. Areas that depend on melted water runoff will likely see that runoff depleted, with less flow in the late summer and spring peaks occurring earlier. This can affect the ability to irrigate crops. (This situation is particularly acute for irrigation in South America, for irrigation and drinking supplies in Central Asia, and for hydropower in Norway, the Alps, and the Pacific Northwest of North America.)
- Increased extreme weather means more water falls on hardened ground unable to absorb it, leading to flash floods instead of a replenishment of soil moisture or groundwater levels.
- Increased evaporation will reduce the effectiveness of reservoirs.
- At the same time, human demand for water will grow for the purposes of cooling and hydration.
Displacement and migration
See also: Environmental migrant
Climate change causes displacement of people in several ways, the most obvious—and dramatic—being through the increased number and severity of weather-related disasters which destroy homes and habitats causing people to seek shelter or livelihoods elsewhere. Effects of climate change such as desertification and rising sea levels gradually erode livelihood and force communities to abandon traditional homelands for more accommodating environments. This is currently happening in areas of Africa’s Sahel, the semi-arid belt that spans the continent just below its northern deserts. Deteriorating environments triggered by climate change can also lead to increased conflict over resources which in turn can displace people.
The IPCC has estimated that 150 million environmental migrants will exist by the year 2050, due mainly to the effects of coastal flooding, shoreline erosion and agricultural disruption. However, the IPCC also cautions that it is extremely difficult to measure the extent of environmental migration due to the complexity of the issue and a lack of data.
According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, more than 42 million people were displaced in Asia and the Pacific during 2010 and 2011, more than twice the population of Sri Lanka. This figure includes those displaced by storms, floods, and heat and cold waves. Still others were displaced drought and sea-level rise. Most of those compelled to leave their homes eventually returned when conditions improved, but an undetermined number became migrants, usually within their country, but also across national borders.
Asia and the Pacific is the global area most prone to natural disasters, both in terms of the absolute number of disasters and of populations affected. It is highly exposed to climate impacts, and is home to highly vulnerable population groups, who are disproportionately poor and marginalized. A recent Asian Development Bank report highlights “environmental hot spots” that are particular risk of flooding, cyclones, typhoons, and water stress.
Some Pacific Ocean island nations, such as Tuvalu, Kiribati, and the Maldives, are considering the eventual possibility of evacuation, as flood defense may become economically unrealistic. Tuvalu already has an ad hoc agreement with New Zealand to allow phased relocation. However, for some islanders relocation is not an option. They are not willing to leave their homes, land and families. Some simply don’t know the threat that climate change has on their island and this is mainly down to the lack of awareness that climate change even exists. In Vutia on Viti Levu, Fiji’s main island, half the respondents to a survey had not heard of climate change (Lata and Nuun 2012). Even where there is awareness many believe that it is a problem caused by developed countries and should therefore be solved by developed countries.
Governments have considered various approaches to reduce migration compelled by environmental conditions in at-risk communities, including programs of social protection, livelihoods development, basic urban infrastructure development, and disaster risk management. Some experts even support migration as an appropriate way for people to cope with environmental changes. However, this is controversial because migrants – particularly low-skilled ones – are among the most vulnerable people in society and are often denied basic protections and access to services.
Climate change is only one factor that may contribute to a household's decision to migrate; other factors may include poverty, population growth or employment options. For this reason, it is difficult to classify environmental migrants as actual "refugees" as legally defined by the UNHCR. Neither the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change nor its Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement on climate change, includes any provisions concerning specific assistance or protection for those who will be directly affected by climate change.
In small islands and megadeltas, inundation as a result of sea level rise is expected to threaten vital infrastructure and human settlements. This could lead to issues of statelessness for populations in countries such as the Maldives and Tuvalu and homelessness in countries with low-lying areas such as Bangladesh.
The World Bank predicts that a “severe hit” will spur conflict and migration across the Middle East, Central Asia, and Africa.
Main article: Climate security
Climate change has the potential to exacerbate existing tensions or create new ones — serving as a threat multiplier. It can be a catalyst for violent conflict and a threat to international security. A meta-analysis of over 50 quantitative studies that examine the link between climate and conflict found that "for each 1 standard deviation (1σ) change in climate toward warmer temperatures or more extreme rainfall, median estimates indicate that the frequency of interpersonal violence rises 4% and the frequency of intergroup conflict rises 14%". The IPCC has suggested that the disruption of environmental migration may serve to exacerbate conflicts, though they are less confident of the role of increased resource scarcity. Of course, climate change does not always lead to violence, and conflicts are often caused by multiple interconnected factors.
A variety of experts have warned that climate change may lead to increased conflict. The Military Advisory Board, a panel of retired U.S. generals and admirals, predicted that global warming will serve as a "threat multiplier" in already volatile regions. The Center for Strategic and International Studies and the Center for a New American Security, two Washington think tanks, have reported that flooding "has the potential to challenge regional and even national identities," leading to "armed conflict over resources." They indicate that the greatest threat would come from "large-scale migrations of people — both inside nations and across existing national borders." However, other researchers have been more skeptical: One study found no statistically meaningful relationship between climate and conflict using data from Europe between the years 1000 and 2000.
The link between climate change and security is a concern for authorities across the world, including United Nations Security Council and the G77 group of developing nations. Climate change's impact as a security threat is expected to hit developing nations particularly hard. In Britain, Foreign SecretaryMargaret Beckett has argued that "An unstable climate will exacerbate some of the core drivers of conflict, such as migratory pressures and competition for resources." The links between the human impact of climate change and the threat of violence and armed conflict are particularly important because multiple destabilizing conditions are affected simultaneously.
Experts have suggested links to climate change in several major conflicts:
Additionally, researchers studying ancient climate patterns (paleoclimatology) have shown that long-term fluctuations of war frequency and population changes have followed cycles of temperature change since the preindustrial era. A 2016 study finds that "drought can contribute to sustaining conflict, especially for agriculturally dependent groups and politically excluded groups in very poor countries. These results suggest a reciprocal nature–society interaction in which violent conflict and environmental shock constitute a vicious circle, each phenomenon increasing the group’s vulnerability to the other."
See also: Climate change and gender
The consequences of climate change and poverty are not distributed uniformly within communities. Individual and social factors such as gender, age, education, ethnicity, geography and language lead to differential vulnerability and capacity to adapt to the effects of climate change. Climate change effects such as hunger, poverty and diseases like diarrhea and malaria, disproportionately impact children; about 90 percent of malaria and diarrhea deaths are among young children. Children are also 14–44 percent more likely to die from environmental factors, again leaving them the most vulnerable.Those in urban areas will be affected by lower air quality and overcrowding, and will struggle the most to better their situation.
Social effects of extreme weather
See also: List of costliest Atlantic hurricanes and Physical impacts of climate change
As the World Meteorological Organization explains, "recent increase in societal impact from tropical cyclones has largely been caused by rising concentrations of population and infrastructure in coastal regions." Pielke et al. (2008) normalized mainland U.S. hurricane damage from 1900 to 2005 to 2005 values and found no remaining trend of increasing absolute damage. The 1970s and 1980s were notable because of the extremely low amounts of damage compared to other decades. The decade 1996–2005 has the second most damage among the past 11 decades, with only the decade 1926–1935 surpassing its costs. The most damaging single storm is the 1926 Miami hurricane, with $157 billion of normalized damage.
The American Insurance Journal predicted that "catastrophe losses should be expected to double roughly every 10 years because of increases in construction costs, increases in the number of structures and changes in their characteristics." The Association of British Insurers has stated that limiting carbon emissions would avoid 80% of the projected additional annual cost of tropical cyclones by the 2080s. The cost is also increasing partly because of building in exposed areas such as coasts and floodplains. The ABI claims that reduction of the vulnerability to some inevitable effects of climate change, for example through more resilient buildings and improved flood defences, could also result in considerable cost-savings in the longterm.
Further information: Current sea level rise
A major challenge for human settlements is sea-level rise, indicated by ongoing observation and research of rapid declines in ice-mass balance from both Greenland and Antarctica. Estimates for 2100 are at least twice as large as previously estimated by IPCC AR4, with an upper limit of about two meters. Depending on regional changes, increased precipitation patterns can cause more flooding or extended drought stresses water resources.
Coasts and low-lying areas
For historical reasons to do with trade, many of the world's largest and most prosperous cities are on the coast. In developing countries, the poorest often live on floodplains, because it is the only available space, or fertile agricultural land. These settlements often lack infrastructure such as dykes and early warning systems. Poorer communities also tend to lack the insurance, savings, or access to credit needed to recover from disasters.
In a journal paper, Nicholls and Tol (2006) considered the effects of sea level rise:
The most vulnerable future worlds to sea-level rise appear to be the A2 and B2 [IPCC] scenarios, which primarily reflects differences in the socio-economic situation (coastal population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and GDP/capita), rather than the magnitude of sea-level rise. Small islands and deltaic settings stand out as being more vulnerable as shown in many earlier analyses. Collectively, these results suggest that human societies will have more choice in how they respond to sea-level rise than is often assumed. However, this conclusion needs to be tempered by recognition that we still do not understand these choices and significant impacts remain possible.
The IPCC reported that socioeconomic impacts of climate change in coastal and low-lying areas would be overwhelmingly adverse. The following impacts were projected with very high confidence:
- Coastal and low-lying areas would be exposed to increasing risks including coastal erosion due to climate change and sea level rise.
- By the 2080s, millions of people would experience floods every year due to sea level rise. The numbers affected were projected to be largest in the densely populated and low-lying mega-deltas of Asia and Africa; and smaller islands were judged to be especially vulnerable.
A study in the April 2007 issue of Environment and Urbanization reports that 634 million people live in coastal areas within 30 feet (9.1 m) of sea level. The study also reported that about two thirds of the world's cities with over five million people are located in these low-lying coastal areas.
Oil, coal and natural gas
Oil and natural gas infrastructure is vulnerable to the effects of climate change and the increased risk of disasters such as storm, cyclones, flooding and long-term increases in sea level. Minimising these risks by building in less disaster prone areas, can be expensive and impossible in countries with coastal locations or island states. All thermal power stations depend on water to cool them. Not only is there increased demand for fresh water, but climate change can increase the likelihood of drought and fresh water shortages. Another impact for thermal power plants, is that increasing the temperatures in which they operate reduces their efficiency and hence their output. The source of oil often comes from areas prone to high natural disaster risks; such as tropical storms, hurricanes, cyclones, and floods. An example is Hurricane Katrina's impact on oil extraction in the Gulf of Mexico, as it destroyed 126 oil and gas platforms and damaged 183 more.
However, previously pristine arctic areas will now be available for resource extraction
Climate change, along with extreme weather and natural disasters can affect nuclear power plants in a similar way to those using oil, coal, and natural gas. However, the impact of water shortages on nuclear power plants cooled by rivers will be greater than on other thermal power plants. This is because old reactor designs with water-cooled cores must run at lower internal temperatures and thus, paradoxically, must dump more heat to the environment to produce a given amount of electricity. This situation has forced some nuclear reactors to be shut down and will do so again unless the cooling systems of these plants are enhanced to provide more capacity. Nuclear power supply was diminished by low river ﬂow rates and droughts, which meant rivers had reached the maximum temperatures for cooling. Such shutdowns happened in France during the 2003 and 2006 heat waves. During the heat waves, 17 reactors had to limit output or shut down. 77% of French electricity is produced by nuclear power; and in 2009 a similar situation created a 8GW shortage, and forced the French government to import electricity. Other Cases have been reported from Germany, where extreme temperatures have reduced nuclear power production 9 times due to high temperatures between 1979 and 2007. In particular:
Similar events have happened elsewhere in Europe during those same hot summers. Many scientists agree that if global warming continues, this disruption is likely to increase.
Changes in the amount of river flow will correlate with the amount of energy produced by a dam. Lower river flows because of drought, climate change, or upstream dams and diversions, will reduce the amount of live storage in a reservoir; therefore reducing the amount of water that can be used for hydroelectricity. The result of diminished river flow can be a power shortage in areas that depend heavily on hydroelectric power. The risk of flow shortage may increase as a result of climate change. Studies from the Colorado River in the United States suggests that modest climate changes (such as a 2 degree change in Celsius that could result in a 10% decline in precipitation), might reduce river run-off by up to 40%. Brazil in particular, is vulnerable due to its having reliance on hydroelectricity as increasing temperatures, lower water ﬂow, and alterations in the rainfall regime, could reduce total energy production by 7% annually by the end of the century.
The scientific evidence for links between global warming and the increasing cost of natural disasters due to weather events is weak, but, nevertheless, prominent mainstream environmental spokesmen such as Barack Obama and Al Gore have emphasized the possible connection. For the most part increased costs due to events such as Hurricane Sandy are due to increased exposure to loss resulting from building insured facilities in vulnerable locations. This information has been denounced by Paul Krugman and ThinkProgress as climate change denial.
An industry directly affected by the risks of climate change is the insurance industry. According to a 2005 report from the Association of British Insurers, limiting carbon emissions could avoid 80% of the projected additional annual cost of tropical cyclones by the 2080s. A June 2004 report by the Association of British Insurers declared "Climate change is not a remote issue for future generations to deal with; it is, in various forms here already, impacting on insurers' businesses now." The report noted that weather-related risks for households and property were already increasing by 2–4% per year due to the changing weather conditions, and claims for storm and flood damages in the UK had doubled to over £6 billion over the period from 1998–2003 compared to the previous five years. The results are rising insurance premiums, and the risk that in some areas flood insurance will become unaffordable for those in the lower income brackets.
Financial institutions, including the world's two largest insurance companies: Munich Re and Swiss Re, warned in a 2002 study that "the increasing frequency of severe climatic events, coupled with social trends could cost almost 150 billion US$ each year in the next decade". These costs would burden customers, taxpayers, and the insurance industry, with increased costs related to insurance and disaster relief.
In the United States, insurance losses have also greatly increased. It has been shown that a 1% climb in annual precipitation can increase catastrophe loss by as much as 2.8%. Gross increases are mostly attributed to increased population and property values in vulnerable coastal areas; though there was also an increase in frequency of weather-related events like heavy rainfalls since the 1950s.
Roads, airport runways, railway lines and pipelines, (including oil pipelines, sewers, water mains etc.) may require increased maintenance and renewal as they become subject to greater temperature variation. Regions already adversely affected include areas of permafrost, which are subject to high levels of subsidence, resulting in buckling roads, sunken foundations, and severely cracked runways.
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